Feed back from Humfrey Melling: there is a lot of heat in the water column close to the ice in the fjords… less so out in Jones Sound. But this situation is very different than what one sees west of Resolute Bay and in the Beaufort Sea. Here the near-surface water is using about 10 mC below freezing (i.e. super-cooled). This all serves to reinforce the validity of what we were seeing (with less than optimum CTD equipment) last year in South Cape Fjord. Now we need to understand why this is happening.