End of Mosaic Leg2, almost!

  • Tom assiste Louis pour plongee site pH
  • Louis plonge sur site pH
  • Louis a la chasse au phoque pres d Arctic Bay
  • Mosaic Leg2

Mosaic Leg3 should have started since February 15th. But the replacing team is still on board the Kapitan Dranitsyn, going at an average speed of 1 km/h with 80 tons of fuel per day... The Russian icebreaker left the Norwegian fjords on February 3rd and was expected on the 15th next to the Polarstern for an almost complete crew change (100 people) and to deliver about 40 tons of freight (food and equipment). We even celebrated the end of Leg2 on February 8th, in order to be ready for mid-February handover!

No ship has ever reached the North Pole in winter. All 145 successful voyages since 1977 happened between the end of May and mid October, 81% were done by nuclear icebreakers. Even if the ice thickness and the ice cover have been decreasing spectacularly for the past thirty years, chartering a middle class icebreaker to get close to the North Pole in winter is still a real challenge! If the Kapitan Dranitsyn cannot reach the Polarstern, Mosaic expedition will probably use aerial logistics... Stay tuned on Mosaic blog.

Meanwhile, scientific field work continues, intense and fruitful. The drift keeps taking us to the north-west, the expedition is now North of the 88° parallel at 200 km from the Pole. The sun will not rise before mid March, but the twilight is more and more each day, with Venus nicely visible above the horizon for the last two weeks. In addition to the hiking or skiing trips allowing everyone to go out on the ice, the last full moon was time for another great camping trip with the braves. Very few animals have been seen since we joined the Mosaic expedition mid December: a fish caught in a net by 1000m depth, a seal seen in the ROV hole (underwater remote operated vehicle), a polar bear on a picture near remote sensing instruments, a fox running around Polarstern. Together with nutriments and plankton regularly sampled, the symbolic Arctic food chain is complete, even in the middle of the winter near the North Pole. All are waiting for the light to return.

France, Léonie and Aurore will be back on board Vagabond on March 2nd. I hope to meet them as soon as possible to carry on the scientific program (winter study of the coralline algae) and for the Artists' residence. The end of the winter and spring will be nice and busy, as well as the summer cruise (August and September) which will be following-up the 2019 summer cruise.

On February 9th, Louis was invited to go seal hunting near Arctic Bay. He's telling us about it: "Departure at 8am for hunting with Rex, Olayuk, Tom and Logan. We meet about ten skidoos on the way and when stopping for tea. We go as far as the floe edge, it's great to watch the open sea. Wind is picking up, it's cold. We need more than one hour to get there, the terrain is quite rough due to the strong winds of the past few days. It's -41°C. Cold is biting, even for some Inuit which get a few frostbites, although their are more resistant. We catch 5 seals. We don't waste time and we are back around 17:30 for the volleyball game, but before we meet at Tom's place to eat fresh seal stew with potatoes. The next day, we eat grilled seal meat with barbecue sauce at Rex's place. I sew a parka with help and advice from Rex and Darlene! Sun returned yesterday."

Tom also helped Louis for diving on Saturday. Louis managed to change in his truck, parked on the ice by the diving hole, and he was warm inside to download the loggers data (pH and salinity) between the two dives. Visibility underwater is excellent!

Sea ice stories

  • Mosaic camping pres du pole nord
  • Balade pleine lune mission Mosaic
  • Un ours inspecte les instruments de Mosaic
  • Plongee par-36C pour collecte coralline

Mosaic expedition keeps going, following the transpolar drift which is getting us slowly closer to the North Pole (less than 300km), and at the pace of a busy scientific program.

At 87°30' latitude North, even during the polar night, northern lights are very rare; we recently observed a green and red one. The full moon was also very beautiful with a penumbral eclipse on January 10th. And the starry sky as well while camping out on the ice last week-end: about twenty scientist accepted my invitation to leave the Polarstern cocoon for a night, to better feel the Arctic Ocean they are studying.

A well educated bear visited carefully part of the numerous instruments deployed on the ice, he didn't do any damage, and he even avoid stepping on the snow under the radiometers that look down at the surface and measure up welling radiations and surface temperature. Only one timelapse camera could see the bear, not long after midnight on January 19th. His foot prints told us about his route.

Ice has been breaking-up quite a bit in the Polarstern surroundings lately. Yesterday, while watching for two teams willing to work on the other side of a crack, ice was squeaking, moaning. Standing by near the opening and pressure zones, with two snowmobiles and three sledges parked on the 'right' side of the crack, I suddenly watched a multiple breaking. Ice was moving under my feet. One sledge ended up like a bridge on top of a one meter wide crack. When I started the snowmobiles, one ski was already touching the water! Luckily the engine was still warm and the machine jumped out of the crack just before sinking (4500m depth...). Simultaneously, a pressure ridge was growing fast, it was time to gather everybody and move back to our vessel. What will become the Mosaic floe?

At Vagabond near Arctic Bay, Louis had some help from one or two seals to keep his diving holes open in the ice and reduce his work before diving! With -36°C yesterday, water probably felt almost warm to him, at -1.8°C. In these conditions, it is a technical and logistical challenge to collect a tenth of coralline samples that were set up on the sea floor last September, and to download data from various loggers measuring light, temperature, salinity and pH. Johan, Leonie's teacher, was there to assist Louis from the surface, and friends from the community to warm up our diver with caribou, Arctic char and seal feast.

Happy 2020!

  • Natasha et Louis
  • Eric mission Mosaic par MarkusBeck

Kapitan Dranitsyn reached Polarstern on December 13th, at 350 kilometers from North Pole. He left again on December 18th with the previous team, after instructions, fuel, food and equipment transfer. We all (250 peoples) had a party on the ice the evening before, with hot wine and soccer game!

We are now 100 people on board Polarstern, half scientists, for Mosaic Leg 2. Our little international community (18 nationalities), the northernmost in the world, is slowly drifting north with an incredible network of instruments. I'm part of the logistics and safety team, assisting field work on the ice, watching for polar bears, moving equipment disturbed by the drift, looking for new access to scientific sites... There is a good mood on board, despite the cold (-34°C today, -50°C wind chill) and the permanent darkness which some participants are experiencing for the first time. However far from our families and friends, we celebrated the winter solstice, Christmas and New Year!

The journey on board Dranitsyn was memorable. I was on board before, when we met in Greenland in 2001, and we met again in Murmansk in 2002. At that time, I never thought one day I would embark with a bunch of scientists almost to the North Pole, in the night, breaking thicker and thicker ice... Our speed dropped down to 1 knot in the end! Not sure if the Dranitsyn will be able to come back for the next crew change, mid February, and other options are possible: nuclear ice-breaker assistance, Russian helicopters, Canadian planes... Let's see how far the drift will take us first!

Meanwhile, Natasha and Louis are looking after Vagabond, north of Baffin Island. They are also in charge of the monthly dives and water samplings for the scientific program. They are handling better and better the logistics and challenging protocols in the cold polar night, especially when recovering the data from the loggers set up at 15 meters under the ice, next to the coralline samples. After diving on December 28th, Louis said "it was -20°C (-30°C the previous dive), so good to be too warm when getting ready!".

They also take part in the local social life, with the nearby community Arctic Bay. Traditionally, games are organized every day for about two weeks during Christmas and New Year. It is a very friendly time of the year, good to know each other better, to taste some arctic char, frozen caribou or fermented walrus, join some seal hunters, learn how to make a parka or an ulu (women's knife), repair a skidoo, go out skiing with the cadets...

Happy New Year to everyone!


  • Mosaic
  • Vagabond arctic bay freezeup by Clare Kines

I'm boarding tomorrow morning the Kapitan Dranitsyn (see her position). From Tromso, Leonie's birthplace, and while Aurore is turning 10 years old, I am preparing for a long mission without my family crew... The Russian icebreaker will reach the Mosaic expedition, near the North Pole. About a hundred scientists, technicians and sailors are taking turns every two months aboard the German icebreaker Polarstern for a year-long Arctic drift. I'm member of the second team, which will return to Tromso at the beginning of March.

This is to do a comprehensive study of the Arctic Ocean before it is exploited. The current changes are considerable as currently reported by Mike Horn and Borge Ousland trying to finish their crossing of the Arctic before winter. Very tired and almost out of food, they should be rescued soon. See their position.

Meanwhile, near Arctic Bay, Natasha joined Louis aboard Vagabond. In this protected bay, the pack ice is now thick enough to circulate serenely (about 30cm). Samples of water and coralline continue, but the dive this morning was difficult ... The polar night started mid-November and will last until the end of January, the thermometer reads -23°C. At this time of the year, it's good to share social life in the neighboring village.

Crew change

Louis arrived yesterday afternoon, with our friends pilots George and Sophie, aboard the small Pilatus loaded with food and various equipment. Their flight from Montreal was superb! After a happy evening on board and a few hours to pass all the instructions to Louis, we entrust him with Vagabond and the scientific protocols for the next 4 months. Our boat is about to freeze in. There was a lot of hesitation about the ideal anchorage: a good shelter, not too close to the shore, in a depth of about twenty meters, not too far nor too close to the village... The wintering will last until the ice break-up, in July 2020!

The photo album of the 2019-2020 winter will be updated regularly.

Polar bears and quotas

  • Arctic Bay 1030 habitants

Public meeting last night organized by the Hunters' and Trappers' Association at Arctic Bay Community Hall. There are 24 polar bears tags for this season 2019-2020, half male and half female. There has been 9 defense kills in recent months, including two cubs who account for half. It remains a quota of 16 tags for the community. It was voted with two voices close that the 5 local outfitters will be able to organize only one sport hunting each, instead of two usually. These sports hunts are mandatory dogsled and are reserved for foreign customers who pay thirty thousand dollars on average for a trophy. Of the remaining 11 tags, it was decided that 5 will be hunted from midnight last night! Shortly after the meeting, the first boats were leaving the bay... As for the remaining 6 tags, a meeting will determine on February 28th, 2020 if they will be drawn, or left to the first 6 successful hunts like this fall. Bear skins sell for about $400 a meter. The meat is consumed by the community.


  • Classe Aurore grade 5 Arctic Bay 2019-2020
  • Classe Leonie grade 8 Arctic Bay 2019-2020

The school here in Arctic Bay is... noisy! It's not very disciplined and, especially in the morning, I do not have much to do because I'm almost the only one to work and it's not the same level, barely the average in France (I think...). In the morning, in English we work maths, science and English itself; and in the afternoon, in Inuktitut we do history, health and Inuktitut. We also do sports three times a week and half an hour of cultural class where we can sew or do different things in beads. For my part, I have already made two bracelets and I'm starting sealskin mitts for which I have only the outside to sew because I found an interior already sewn.

There are not many students, especially for me who come back from a class of 39 in Ecuador. In the morning, it turns around 10 students, and the afternoon, more around 13 because some sleep in the morning but still come in the afternoon. It's pretty balanced between girls and boys. It is true that I already have a little idea of ​​what I would like to do later: a biologist specialized in global warming. I'm not sure they have a lot of ideas. We know the family of Horizon (one of my classmates) and I know that her mother would like her to have her own dog team (here, I admit that I am almost jealous...). Otherwise, in sports, it's often games, but I do not participate very much because I have trouble understanding them and them to explain to me. I do what I can to work my French school aboard Vagabond, but I have not received much work...

Seal hunting

  • Tom et Eric partent chasser le phoque
  • Barque brise-glace Adams Sound

Yesterday Tom offered me to join him, he needs seal meat to feed his dog team. They too are waiting for the pack ice with impatience to stretch their legs! Well wrapped up in our parkas, we sail up Adams Sound at about 40 knots. The water is smooth as a mirror, it's snowing and we squint to scan the surface for a muzzle that would point his nose to breathe. There, Tom sees one, he stops his boat, stops the engines, and waits for the animal to resurface... Ten minutes, here it is! He shoots a little too high, the seal disappears. We wait again, Tom shoots but misses again. After 4 tries, he laughs about his target he calls "the magic seal", and he decides to go to end of the fjord. The sea started freezing, but to my surprise, smiling, Tom does not slow down: his boat, launched at a brisk pace, comes to clear a path by breaking the 3 or 4 cm of ice. Spectacular! Here and there, we see breathing holes made by a few seals, clearly visible on this young ice without snow. Tom explains that it is easier to hunt when the sea gets thick, just before freezing, because there is almost no swell and the boat is then very stable to aim.

Studying coralline growth

  • Echantillons coralline et capteurs prets au deploiement
  • Pano Arctic Bay equinoxe

Already one month since we arrived in Arctic Bay. Aurore and Léonie have made their marks at the Inuujaq school, and we are gradually getting to know this community of 1030 people, very welcoming. The preparation of the scientific program kept us busy since September 14th, with Jessica Gould who has just left this morning, back to her university in Boston.

So that's it, 142 samples of coralline met again their habitat, 15m deep, 2km from the village. The first dives were a real relief, I found enough nice pieces of coralline in 4 rather short dives. Then, we had to choose them, clean them, re-cut the bigger ones, soak them for 48 hours in a colored bath to mark the beginning of the study, stick them on their small supports, weigh them precisely, photograph them, and finally install them in groups of 10 on plates equipped with light, temperature, pH and salinity sensors. Finally, on the 28th of September, in a long 50-minutes dive, I hammered down 19 stakes in the seabed, and placed as many plates of coralline samples and sensors. The study of the growth of this special algae began.

Seabed mapping in uncharted areas to support ocean modelling, by

  • Releve sonar multifaisceaux front du glacier Cap Norton Shaw
  • Sonar multifaisceaux et bras repare

Combining climate change research and crowdsourced bathymetry, by Gabriel Joyal

The velocity and dynamics of tide-water glaciers are highly influenced by the submarine morphology near the terminus. Water depths at the glacier front and fjord bathymetry determine the circulation and stratification of ocean water within the fjord, and exchange of water across the continental shelf. These processes have a substantial influence on regulating submarine melt rates, retreat of glacier termini, calving of icebergs, and thus the contribution of tide-water glaciers to global sea level rise. Unfortunately, existing bathymetric data in the Canadian Arctic has large gaps, with the majority of glacial fjords completely uncharted, preventing numerical ocean models from accurately characterizing ocean circulation and the influence of the ocean on the mass balance of marine-terminating glaciers. In order to increase the spatial resolution of the bathymetry in uncharted fjords, there is a need to develop new mapping programs in the High Arctic, using acoustics or optics methods. To this day, large survey vessels (e.g. NGCC Amundsen) with deeper draft are not well suited for safe navigation in shallow uncharted near-shore areas, whereas satellite remote sensing technique give coarser resolution bathymetric data. For the last 3 weeks, with a multibeam echosounder, we collected data from Vagabond on the Eastern coast of Ellesmere Island during a seabed mapping dedicated research cruise. This innovative research program has been made possible through collaboration between academic researchers, R2Sonic LLC, and the Canadian Hydrographic Service. The results highlight the major role played by marine geomatics in climate change research. Moreover, the research-collected data shared with the federal authorities will allow Arctic charts updates, in a context of increased marine traffic and tourism in glacial fjords of the Canadian Arctic.